Insertion To make sure that the given tree remains AVL after every insertion, we must augment the standard BST insert operation to perform some re-balancing. Following are two basic operations that can be performed to re-balance a BST without violating the BST property (keys(left) < key(root) < keys(right)). 1) Left Rotation 2) Right Rotation T1, T2 and T3 are subtrees of the tree rooted with y (on left side) or x (on right side) y x / \ Right Rotation / \ x T3 - - - - - - - > T1 y / \ < - - - - - - - / \ T1 T2 Left Rotation T2 T3 Keys in both of the above trees follow the following order keys(T1) < key(x) < keys(T2) < key(y) < keys(T3) So BST property is not violated anywhere. Steps to follow for insertion Let the newly inserted node be w 1) Perform standard BST insert for w. 2) Starting from w, travel up and find the first unbalanced node. Let z be the first unbalanced node, y be the child of z that comes on the path from w to z and x be the grandchild of z that comes on the path from w to z. 3) Re-balance the tree by performing appropriate rotations on the subtree rooted with z. There can be 4 possible cases that needs to be handled as x, y and z can be arranged in 4 ways. Following are the possible 4 arrangements: a) y is left child of z and x is left child of y (Left Left Case) b) y is left child of z and x is right child of y (Left Right Case) c) y is right child of z and x is right child of y (Right Right Case) d) y is right child of z and x is left child of y (Right Left Case) Following are the operations to be performed in above mentioned 4 cases. In all of the cases, we only need to re-balance the subtree rooted with z and the complete tree becomes balanced as the height of subtree (After appropriate rotations) rooted with z becomes same as it was before insertion. (See this video lecture for proof) a) Left Left Case T1, T2, T3 and T4 are subtrees. z y / \ / \ y T4 Right Rotate (z) x z / \ - - - - - - - - -> / \ / \ x T3 T1 T2 T3 T4 / \ T1 T2 b) Left Right Case z z x / \ / \ / \ y T4 Left Rotate (y) x T4 Right Rotate(z) y z / \ - - - - - - - - -> / \ - - - - - - - -> / \ / \ T1 x y T3 T1 T2 T3 T4 / \ / \ T2 T3 T1 T2 c) Right Right Case z y / \ / \ T1 y Left Rotate(z) z x / \ - - - - - - - -> / \ / \ T2 x T1 T2 T3 T4 / \ T3 T4 d) Right Left Case z z x / \ / \ / \ T1 y Right Rotate (y) T1 x Left Rotate(z) z y / \ - - - - - - - - -> / \ - - - - - - - -> / \ / \ x T4 T2 y T1 T2 T3 T4 / \ / \ T2 T3 T3 T4